India is the biggest consumer of groundwater for agriculture in the world. Overexploitation of groundwater and intensive irrigation has created severe problems for groundwater management, leading to exhaustion of water tables, groundwater contamination, saltwater encroachment and water logging. Groundwater is also the major source of drinking water in India, especially in rural areas, where nearly 90% of the water supply currently is sourced from groundwater. 

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Humana People to People India (HPPI) works with people in impoverished rural and urban areas on creating access to safe and clean drinking water. This involves working out location specific procedures and agreements within the user community for sustainable use of water, implementation of low technology water conservation techniques and training of farmers on water saving cultivation methods. Groundwater recharge and other water initiatives has reached out to 68 villages in Neemrana and 5 villages of Jodhpur, Rajasthan – areas gravely effected by declining ground water tables.

Examples of low cost/low technology techniques are rain water harvesting units, dry dug well recharge systems, ground water recharge in village ponds and using drip irrigation and other water saving cultivation methods. Water quality testing and installation of domestic de-fluoridation units, community mobilization and awareness drives on government water supply schemes and watershed management are other important activities undertaken as water initiatives.